*Found in Collection is a term used to denote materials not originally part of a large donation or that are undocumented. I’ll be using it to talk about interesting stories not necessarily able to be on display in the NURFC galleries.
In honor of Valentine’s Day, which just passed, I’d like to tell you about some pieces on display and in the archives of the NURFC collection that represent an epic love story the years could easily have buried. NURFC was fortunate to receive a large donation from the Victoria Retirement Center in 2013, containing about 800 items belonging to Charles and Garnetta Lewis of Cincinnati. In inventorying and cataloging these items, we realized that the bulk of the materials were letters written almost daily between Charles, a member of the Army Air Force during World War II, and his wife, while Charles was serving in training in the United States and with the India-China Transport Wing of the AAF during the last year of the war.
The thing that thrills me most about this collection is its ordinariness. Charles Lewis is not a celebrated war hero or even a particular trailblazer. He’s a normal man in a happy marriage, separated from the one he loves. He battles that separation anxiety and loss the only way he knows, by writing to Garnetta –- prodigiously. For every letter in the display cases on the third floor, there are four more in our archives! These are primarily Charles’ letters to Garnetta, who kept each of the letters through the many years between the war and the donation to NURFC. Though some of the letters are Garnetta’s to Charles, I imagine it was much harder for him to keep the bulk of her letters through the many moves required of him during the war, rather than Garnetta not writing to Charles as often as he wrote her.
The lesson I take from Charles and Garnetta’s story is one of perseverance and steadfast love, through the many obstacles life throws at us. Charles served during Jim Crow, and trained in segregated Georgia and Mississippi; yet, his letters are upbeat and focused on his love for Garnetta and his day-to-day life as a soldier -– his despair and frustration are with delays in receiving her letters or with not receiving them! We can all learn a lesson here -- love each other, no matter the obstacles, being solid in that love despite the battering the world gives us.
Gina K. Armstrong, IMLS Coca-Cola Museum Studies Apprentice
Each day in February, the Freedom Center will use its social media channels to highlight a different quilt from the exhibit, which features 85 story quilts narrating 400 years of African American history.
Your family can join in the celebration at the Freedom Center and online via Facebook, Twitter and Instagram @freedomcenter #28days28quilts
And Still We Rise, on view now through March 29, narrates 400 years of history in 85 story quilts. The exhibition curated by the founder of the Women of Color Quilter’s Network, Carolyn Mazloomi, Ph.D., chronicles the history of the African American experience, capturing the stories of freedom’s heroes, ranging from Frederick Douglass to the first African American President. The exhibit is sponsored by P&G and ArtsWave.
-Assia Johnson, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator
The Anti-Slavery Record was an abolitionist series published for the American Anti-Slavery Society by R. G. Williams. The monthly was published in New York and had a three year run from 1835 to 1837. Issues of the Anti-Slavery Record were bought and read in huge numbers while in print. With the intention of sharing anti-slavery sentiments with a broad audience, most issues included an illustration on the first page that depicted the evils of chattel slavery.
Pictured here is the unsigned illustration on the first page of the December 1835 issue of The Anti-Slavery Record. This pamphlet is from the Collection of the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center.
-Cori Sisler, Manager of Collections and Exhibitions
Our friends at the International Justice Mission made an exciting announcement this morning. Their President and CEO, Gary Haugen, released his brand new book, The Locust Effect, which details the reality of brutal, constant, and unchecked violence that confronts most of the world’s poor.
At the Freedom Center we challenge and inspire people to take courageous steps for freedom by telling stories like Gary’s, as we did in our documentary Journey to Freedom. We tell these stories so people will be empowered to join with Gary and IJM, and others like them, in attacking injustices like the scourge of violence that greets the extremely poor at nearly every turn. We tell these stories because true freedom can only come when everyone can enjoy the basic protection from violence that most of the developed world experiences.
Globally, the facts are stunning:
Learn more by visiting Invisible: Slavery Today, the world’s first permanent, museum-quality exhibit on modern slavery, housed at the Freedom Center and developed with Free the Slaves, GoodWeave, International Justice Mission, and Polaris Project,
The Locust Effect gets to the most basic – and perhaps most shocking – point on page 36 of the very first chapter:
“The most fundamental systems of law and order (which communities in affluent countries consider the most basic public service) have been so useless for so long in much of the developing world that violent criminals preying upon the poor don’t give it a second thought – and tragically, much of the world has ceased to give a second thought to fixing or even understanding the breakdown”
Perhaps we’ve been lulled into a sense of complacency by the appearance of justice – by the mirage that is reflected off of the statue books and courtrooms we’ve come to associate with the Rule of Law. Gary’s book shatters the illusion and makes very clear the drastic consequences for the world’s poor.
We simply can’t accept the mere appearance of justice anymore, and The Locust Effect offers a guidepost on how to get started.
Check out this unforgettable video that shows what the world is up against as we work together to help our poorest neighbors. You won’t want to miss the powerful moment at 1:48 - - our fight against poverty is worth safeguarding. Click here to see the video.
Want more? Check out The Locust Effect, by IJM’s president Gary A. Haugen, which releases today.
Note: Luke Blocher, Director of Strategic Initiatives, joined state and national anti-trafficking leaders in Columbus on January 9, 2014 and delivered these remarks. He was joined by keynote speaker Theresa Flores, human trafficking survivor and founder of Save Our Adolescents from Prostitution (SOAP); Ohio Senator Peggy Lehner; Ohio Human Trafficking Coordinator Elizabeth Ranade-Janis; Former CEO of Procter & Gamble and Founding Counselor for the Global Business Coalition Against Human Trafficking John Pepper Jr.; Judges Paul Herbert and Greg Singer; U.S. Attorney Carter Stewart; Director of the Attorney General’s Division of Children’s Initiatives Melinda Sykes; and human trafficking survivors.
You can watch the remarks below or at The Ohio Channel, a service of Ohio’s Public Broadcasting stations. Freedom Center Honorary Co-Chair of the Board, Mr. John Pepper’s remarks begin at 66:03. Luke Blocher’s remarks follow, beginning at 86:52. Both can be watched in 35 minutes.
The Freedom Center is a museum on the banks of the Ohio River in Cincinnati. We are located there, on the border between slave and free states, because close to 60% of all the courageous slaves who fled north on the Underground Railroad in the years leading up to the Civil War did so by crossing the Ohio within 30 miles of our location.
Our mission is to tell the stories of freedom’s heroes, from the era of the Underground Railroad, through to contemporary times, inspiring and challenging people to take courageous steps for freedom today.
In other words, we stand firmly rooted in an era that revealed the best of courage, cooperation, and perseverance…and demand that people do better today.
We do this through our exhibits, through programming we host in our building, and – increasingly – through digital content and media.
So what is it that we say people should learn from this history, as it relates to the challenges we face today?
First: Slavery is not a historical concept. The form of legal, chattel slavery that dominated our nation’s politics for much of our first 100 years is, Thank God, a piece of history. But the exploitation and control of one human by another, for the purposes of one profiting from the other’s labor, continues. It continued in this country after the Civil War, as it did around the world. And it continues everywhere today, including here in our State.
Importantly, though - and this is the main point I want to make today to this audience – abolition is not a historic concept either. In our schools and in our culture, we celebrate the conductors on the Underground Railroad, and the abolitionists who fought for decades to end legalized American slavery, as unvarnished and uncontroversial heroes.
You may recall from your history books, however, that the idea slavery could be outlawed was, for many, many years, a ridiculous proposition. Indeed, it is hard to conceive of an economic and cultural force more potent than “the slave power” of the first half of the 19th century. Yet these abolitionists fought day by day; they built a movement, brick by brick. And eventually, they won.
Today we face a different battle. Instead of a concentrated political and economic elite, we face the forces of ignorance and indifference, and of shadowy but highly organized criminal networks who feed on both.
But while the game may have changed, the way to win has not - the simple truth remains that a collection of committed individuals, united around the basic cause of human freedom, can stamp out slavery.
Indeed, to paraphrase Margaret Mead, it is the only thing that ever has.
This is the story we tell at the Freedom Center, so that the people we touch will recognize slavery is still a problem they must confront, and believe they have the power to do something about it.
YOU are our evidence. The people in this room, and the people all across the world who continue the work of the great 19th Century Abolitionists. YOU demonstrate that abolition is not merely a historic concept.
Think about it this way:
At the Freedom Center, we celebrate how John Parker, himself a former slave, traveled into Kentucky from Ripley, Ohio to ferry escaping slaves across the Ohio River to freedom. TODAY, people like the Salvation Army and International Justice Mission and so many others similarly extend their hand to help people escape their traffickers. But we can do more.
Back then in Ripley, the Rev. John Rankin opened his home to keep runaway slaves safe as they continued their journey to freedom. TODAY, safe houses do this same work here, at places like the Oasis House, and around the world. Although we need much more.
In 19th century Cincinnati, Katie Coffin opened her home as a transitional place, for escaping slaves to reclaim their mental, physical and spiritual health. TODAY, many different transitional homes staffed with dedicated caregivers provide a sanctuary for survivors to move from slavery to a true and empowered freedom. Although, again, we need more.
A Governor who sat in this very building, Salmon Chase, was first a lawyer in Cincinnati who regularly challenged the system of legal slavery and advocated on behalf of escaping slaves in court. TODAY, lawmakers like Theresa Fedor are making policy that allows lawyers and investigators to bring traffickers to justice for the first time, and to change the cost-benefit analysis of choosing a life of criminal trafficking. But we need more.
Most importantly, back then people like Frederick Douglass, Solomon Northup, and Harriett Jacobs - men and women of almost unfathomable courage - had the will, the temerity, to escape from slavery and then to spend their lives telling their story and forcing our country to face the ugly truth of chattel slavery. TODAY, we have heroes like Theresa Flores, Rachel Lloyd and my new friend Katalea from Wright State who do the same. Their impact, and their courage, can’t possibly be overstated. As Rep Flores and I were discussing last night, we need to give them an even greater voice.
These are the stories that we tell. We tell them in our exhibits, like the world’s first museum quality exhibit Invisible: Slavery Today; in our programming, like the annual reception with the State Department Trafficking in Person Report Heroes and the unique academics-to-activism Historians against Slavery Conference;
and in media like our original documentary Journey to Freedom. This film, which is available on youtube and dvd, tells the parallel stories of Solomon Northup in 1840 and Cambodian Prum Vannak. You may have heard of Solomon’s story from the new film 12 Years a Slave. Vannak’s story is eerily similar, but it took place in Southeast Asia less than ten years ago. The film also tells the parallel stories of abolitionists in each era, and concludes by asking viewers to join the network of these abolitionists which spans hundreds of years and every continent. It has been screened at over 50 US embassies around as an integral part of the U.S. State Department’s public programming, and is available for use by anyone who wants to introduce this topic to broad audiences.
This has been our part of this movement, but WE need to do more. More to tell your stories, so that others join this movement.
That’s why n the coming months, we will be re-launching a website and anti-trafficking resource called EndSlaveryNow. This will be a place anyone can go, to easily, but comprehensively, get an introduction to what modern slavery is, where it is happening around the world, and who is doing what to respond to it.
We will also present the full spectrum of the response to trafficking - from awareness, rescue, and prosecution, to aftercare, transition, and empowerment – as well as a way to connect to the organizations focused on each of these elements.
And finally, we’ll provide a FULL picture of the many ways a committed individual can act – today – to attack human trafficking and modern slavery around the world and in their communities.
In this way, we hope End Slavery Now will act as a funnel: attracting people (through the magic of Search Engine Optimization) who may just be learning about modern slavery and human trafficking, educating them as to the true scope and scale of the challenge, and then funneling them to the organizations and issues that most align with their hearts and their passion.
We believe there will be two keys to the success of this effort. First, it must be comprehensive. We are fortunate that the original creators of this resource had close relationships with many of the leading national and global NGOs. To this base, we’re adding a state-by-state directory of anti-trafficking organizations. In Ohio, we will of course be relying on the incredible work already undertaken by Liz Rainade-Janis and the Deparment of Public Safety in this area. We will welcome your comments and suggestions at all times as to what we may be missing, though.
Just as important as this depth, though, will be the way the information presented. This, like everything we do at the Freedom Center, will be done through stories. We will explain the many forms and locations of modern slavery through the stories of the individuals affected by it; we will present the spectrum of modern abolition by highlighting the people and organizations that are leading this charge. I’ve already spoken to some of you here about how we might feature your organizations – and your stories – as a way to reach more people with your message, and ultimately to inspire action. I hope to talk to many more of you about this in the coming months.
This project, As we have begun to say, has a very simple purpose: We all have a role in ending slavery in our communities and around the world. At End Slavery Now, we help you find yours
Let me close by saying this:
The Freedom Center and other museums of conscience and educational institutions exist to tell the stories of heroic people. We exist because people throughout time have chosen to stand up against injustice, and demand change. We exist because of people like you.
And for that I simply want to say thank you, and don’t stop.
On Feb. 1, the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center will kick-off Black History Month with the Cincinnati Childrens Theater's production of The Frederick Douglass Story. In reverence of the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Civil Rights Act, the national Black History theme is Civil Rights in America. Though we should celebrate this great milestone, we should not forget that the fight for civil rights began before the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s. It can be argued that the early civil rights leaders were men like David Walker. David Walker’s Appeal, published in 1829, was a document that instilled pride within people of color and gave hope that change would come one day. He spoke against colonization, a movement that sought to move free Blacks to a colony in Africa. Walker believed that America belonged to all who helped build it, especially the enslaved.
The history of civil rights in America is largely the story of African Americans and people of color, defining themselves in the ongoing struggle to obtain the inalienable rights promised to all Americans. Walker’s ideas about America were handed down to many who become defenders of the oppressed and fighters of freedom, regardless of race and gender. Frederick Douglass is part of this continuum of social justice and equal treatment. Douglass was a commanding speaker who compelled audiences as he toured America and overseas. Douglass is one of the most respected and iconic leaders in our country’s history. My favorite Douglass quote is, “If there is no struggle, there is no progress. Those who profess to favor freedom, and yet depreciate agitation, are men who want crops without plowing up the ground. They want rain without thunder and lightning. They want the ocean without the awful roar of its many waters. This struggle may be a moral one; or it may be a physical one; or it may be both moral and physical; but it must be a struggle.”
Douglass was a man who not only understood the need for freedom and justice, he also understood the necessary sacrifice in having freedom and justice. Through the tool of performing art, join me at the Freedom Center on Feb. 1, and learn more about the brilliance of a man who was an outspoken leader of social justice. Click here for more information on tickets and performance times.
Christopher Miller, Manager of Program Initiatives
[Photo Caption:] A school group on a tour listens to one of our historical interpreters.
Here at the Freedom Center, one of the most powerful ways we reveal stories of freedom’s heroes is by offering guided tours of our exhibits to groups. Many of these tours are given to students from local and regional schools and tie into the work they do in their classes. Tours are essential for us to communicate our message of Courage, Cooperation, Perseverance, and Freedom to the public, and most of these tours are led by our volunteer docents.
Volunteering to give tours at the Freedom Center is a richly rewarding experience. Recently, I have been lucky enough to lead kindergarteners on tours that include our special exhibition, And Still We Rise. The young students enjoy being able to see the quilts up close, and are eager to share the stories they see in the artworks. When the groups listen to our historical interpreters, participating with their voices and their hands, it is a delight to see them learning concepts of self-worth and how to respect others. Through leading tours, docents are able to have a positive impact on students’ understanding of history and their relationship to freedom. Each tour challenges visitors to take steps for freedom today.
The Freedom Center is currently recruiting new volunteers to help us carry out this key part of our mission. Volunteer docents are essential and valued members of the Freedom Center family. We are looking for individuals who are willing to work with the public, and we appreciate a diverse group of volunteers who bring a variety of skills to the Center. Volunteer hours are flexible and we provide training on the material covered in tours. I hope you will consider joining us.
-Nancy Yerian, AmeriCorps Member, Ohio Local History Corps
The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center welcomes thousands of visitors annually, all with unique stories, backgrounds and world views. Though our exhibits, docent-led school tours and unique programming, visitors learn about institutionalized slavery in America and about the network of abolitionists who fought to see its end in the 1800s. Of those visitors, there are many that seek the stories of the Underground Railroad on their personal journey to join the network of modern abolitionists, fighting against modern forms of slavery and human trafficking. Their stories are amazing and inspiring and we feel compelled to share their stories with all of you!
Flame Friday is unique way for visitors to engage with the Freedom Center and other modern abolitionsits via social media. Visitors can share their personal journey in enabling freedom when they take pictures with the Eternal Flame, located on the third floor just outside of the From Slavery to Freedom Exhibit. Once you take your picture, tag it #FlameFriday along with your story online, and via Instagram or Twitter. The Freedom Center will share #FlameFriday stories on Fridays. We encourage everyone to share their story and how they use Freedom's Flame to light the way for others!
-Assia Johnson, Public Relations and Social Media Coordinator
Image: (Top) Visiting students from Hughes High School in Cincinnati, Ohio. (Bottom, from left to right): Brooke Hathaway, Project Manager of Strategic Initiatives, Freedom Hero Josephine Kulea, founder and director of the Samburu Girls Foundation and Luke Blocher, Director of National Strategic Initiatives.
The National Underground Railroad Freedom Center uses an expanding archival collection to gain valuable historic perspectives on the institution of slavery. After all, it is undoubtedly difficult for the 21st century person to completely understand many different aspects of 19th century life in America. Historic newspapers, pamphlets and memoirs are just several examples of primary resources that paint a vivid picture of the horrors of slavery, the Underground Railroad Movement and the lives of abolitionists across the country.
One of the few, detailed accounts of the commercial slave trade by a participant was captured in the memoirs of Captain Theodore Canot, a slave trader for nearly three decades. Originally written in 1854, Adventures of an African Slaver: Being the True Account of the Life of Captain Theodore Canot, Trader of Gold, Ivory and Slaves on the Coast of Guinea is filled with information on nearly every aspect of the slave trade in the 1800s. The text details Canot’s extensive travels into the interior of Africa to buy slaves, the treatment of enslaved Africans on slave ships, the suppression of a slave revolt at sea, as well as financial tables that expose the expenses and profits of his involvement in the slave trade.
A 1928 edition of Captain Theodore Canot’s memoirs edited by Malcolm Cowley is on display in the From Slavery to Freedom exhibition at the Freedom Center. In an exhibition space that is meant to commemorate those that survived and died during the Transatlantic Slave Trade, this book serves as a reminder that the historic institution of slavery functioned as a business that offered no sustenance to those it enslaved.
-Cori Sisler, Manager of Collections and Exhibitions
As I mentioned last month, Fox Searchlight released its new film, “12 Years a Slave” last Friday night in theaters across America. Staff and friends of the Freedom Center were treated to a sneak preview in Cincinnati a week ago, and after finally seeing the film I can attest to its incredible value. Within our museum walls we discuss slavery every day – but it’s an entirely different thing to see the brutality and violence of this institution on screen. I cried and winced and looked away. It’s uncomfortable, unnerving, and horrible. Yet this film is so necessary – to every American certainly, but I daresay to all of humanity.
Solomon’s Story Isn’t Over
The film has a particular connection to our world today because slavery didn’t end with the Emancipation Proclamation or men like Solomon being freed. There are up 30 million people enslaved in the world today according to the recently released Global Slavery Index by our friends at Walk Free Foundation.
Men, women and children are no longer owned as property as they were in the American South. We call that form of enslavement “chattel slavery” or the legal ownership of a human being by another. The U.S. ended this form of enslavement in 1865, but the final country, Mauritania, to eliminate chattel slavery didn’t do so until 1981.
But there are still many forms of enslavement that persist throughout the world. Forced labor, domestic servitude, child labor, sexual enslavement and bonded labor can be found in hundreds of countries today. Then factor in child brides – girls given in marriage at ages as young as eight years old – and child soldiers, both of which we consider forms of enslavement because children are forced against their will to participate and cannot walk away.
The Global Slavery Index provides a ranking of 162 countries, reflecting a combined measure of three factors: estimated prevalence of modern slavery by population, a measure of child marriage, and a measure of human trafficking in and out of a country.
What About the United States?
The Global Slavery Index ranked Mauritania, Haiti, Pakistan and India as the countries with highest prevalence of modern slavery. Conversely, it ranked the countries with the lowest prevalence of modern slavery, and the United States didn’t even make the top ten. Modern slavery isn’t just a problem in other countries – it’s a problem here.
In 2011, more than 10,000 people called the U.S. based hotline from every single state to request emergency assistance, report a tip, find services for survivors, request more information and more. That’s a 64% increase from 2010 – a reflection of the growing awareness of trafficking.
And people enslave others in both labor trafficking and sex trafficking situations here in the U.S. Labor traffickers commonly force people to work in agriculture and farms, as domestic servants, in restaurants and food service, in peddling and begging rings, as hostesses and dancers in strip clubs, in factories, and in the hospitality industry. In the U.S., these forms of labor trafficking are much more common than people realize.
Sex trafficking in the U.S. occurs in fake massage businesses, residential brothels, strip clubs, escort services and truck stops. It’s often facilitated through the internet and street prostitution. Sex trafficking occurs when people – men and women – are forced or coerced into the commercial sex trade against their will. It includes any child involved in commercial sex.
Abolition Didn’t End With Emancipation
Slavery didn’t end with the Civil War, but neither did abolition. Check out some of our partner organizations who are leading projects across the world to stop enslavers and restoring survivors to lives of freedom.
Free the Slaves operates on the frontlines in six different countries, liberating slaves, helping survivors, and working for systemic solutions.
International Justice Mission has ongoing operations in 16 cities in Cambodia, the Philippines, Thailand, India, Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, Bolivia and Guatemala, and has Casework Alliance Partnerships in Ecuador and Peru.
Polaris Project works in the United States and is committed to combating human trafficking through the National Human Trafficking Resource Center, client services and policy advocacy.
Made in a Free World focuses on supply chains, showing consumers that today’s supply chains enslave more people than at any time in human history. “That smart phone. That t-shirt, computer, cup of coffee… That’s stuff we buy, and that’s stuff that comes from slaves.”
Have You Seen the Film, Yet?
Director Steve McQueen honored Solomon’s story by sticking largely to his original narrative. And the actors gave incredible performances that certainly merit an Academy Award.
I cannot encourage you enough to go and see it – and take friends and family. Start talking about the past, and share with others that this brutal treatment, this enslavement of human beings continues to occur today.
Read Solomon Northup’s Autobiography, Twelve Years a Slave
If you’re interested in reading Solomon’s memoir by the same name, I recommend Twelve Years a Slave – Enhanced Edition by Dr. Sue Eakin (available for Kindle, in audiobook, and in paperback). If you prefer listening to audiobooks, then you can download the book read by actor Louis Gossett, Jr. and use the promo code FREEDOM. When you purchase the audiobook at Downpour.com and use the code at checkout, we will receive a donation of 20% of your net sales price. Downpour.com is partially owned by the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). Use of the code will not impact the purchase price. -Brooke Hathaway, Project Manager of Strategic Initiatives
This website was funded by the U.S. Department of Education Underground Railroad Educational and Cultural (URR) Program